History common and sincerely felt is in the Republic of San Marino the admiration for the holy one, to which the meaningful establishment of the republic is attributed. After the legend Marino was an experienced stone-cutter, who came from the native island Rab into Dalmatia here and based on the Monte Titano a small community of Christians pursued among emperors Diokletian because of their faith. It is surely proven that the area was settled already in before-historical time, but only since the Middle Ages is the existence of a monastery, a parish church and a castle occupies. These elements confirm without each doubt that on the point of the Monte Titano an arranged community existed. While the authority of the emperor decreased, which had not strengthened the papacy however yet, as in other Italian cities the will of the citizens outweighed also here to give oneself its own government and so a city republic developed - the municipality. Other Italian cities often dedicated their liberty to a holy one; the small community on the Monte Titano against it meant of the legendary figure of that stone-cutters Marino and called itself first Terra di San Marino - country of the holy Marino - then Comune di San Marino and finally Republic of San Marino. This was the origin of a community, which transferred its government the Arengo, a meeting of family heads under the presidency of a so-called rector. These on the receipt of peace and unity considered meeting are the emergence of the first laws to owe the statutes aligned at democratic principles. When the population continued to increase, those of the Capitano Difensore beside the figure of the rector, which divided its executive responsibility, stepped.
But only 1243 was ordered the first two consuls and/or Capitani Reggenti, which alternated since that time without interruptions every six months at power and to today the soundness and operability of the institutions and particularly this system of government to prove. It was to be owed to the wisdom of the old city republic that San Marino understood successfully to master dangerous situations and strengthen its independence. Its history was difficult and complicated, and the results occasionally uncertainly, but the love for the liberty contributed finally to the fact that the valuable autonomy of the municipality remained. The arguments with the bishops of Montefeltro in this regard, which required the payment of a tribute, were important; the Sanmarinesi kept the upper hand however finally and achieved its political and administrative independence.
They were not at all dormant thereby, but defended the walls of their city with their legendary arm chests and participated in the side of the counts and dukes of Montefeltro from Urbino, party men of the Italian Ghibellinen, in numerous military conflicts. The area of San Marino extended in the Middle Ages only scarcely around the Monte Titano, until its citizens itself 1463 at the alliance against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, which von Rimini took part gentleman. The war course ran lucky, and as thanks for its support Pope Pius left IITH Piccolomini San Marino the places Fiorentino, Montegiardino and Serravalle; Faetano was integrated voluntarily into the national territory of San Marino. Since 1463 the territory of the state remained unchanged. Twice the republic was militarily occupied - however only for few months: called in the year 1503 of Cesare Borgia, Valentino, and 1739 of cardinal Giulio Alberoni. From the rule of the Borgia it released its death; the rescue before the regiment cardinal Alberonis against it succeeded, by opposing it with civil disobedience and sending secretly messages to the Pope, in order to attain from the latter justice. It recognized the good right San Marinos on and returned to it independence. Napoleon offered 1797 beside gifts and proof of sympathy also the extension of its territory to the republic. The Sanmarinesi appreciated the honour of such an obligingness, rejected however with instinctive intelligence.
he expansion of the national territory and explained themselves as "contently with their". Abraham Lincoln testified San Marino 1861 its sympathy and friendship, by writing the among other things following words the governing heads of state: "your territory is small, but not the despite your state is one the most honoured in entire history...".
San Marino praised itself at all times of a tradition of extraordinary hospitality. Refused in this country of the liberty by misfortune and tyranny pursued without reputation of their life circumstances and conviction never asylum and assistance. Exemplarily for many here only two names are to be called: Giuseppe Garibaldi, which encircles courageous fighters for the liberty of Italy, of three armies, found after the collapse of the Roman republic 1849 together with his survivors comrades admission and unexpected rescue in San Marino. During the last world war one counted approximately 100,000 refugees in San Marino. Still today the independent, democratic and neutral Republic of San Marino is faithful to its old traditions, is open at the same time however full interests to the innovations and progress of the present.